Pipeline Technology offers the chemical industry the option of outsourcing the design, ownership, and maintenance of safe, cost-effective and efficient transportation systems for pipelines. Two key types of pipelines, liquid pipelines and natural gas pipelines operate in the energy sector. Liquid pipelines transport, in liquid form, crude oil or natural gas to refineries where distillation and other processing processes are carried out. As a subsea pipeline, the pipeline will run underground, aboveground, and underwater. Whereas, with a few underground facilities, piping is mainly above ground pipeline sizes vary from 2-inch (5-centimeter) diameter lines in high-volume water and sewage networks used in oil-well collection systems to lines 30 feet (9 meters) across. Pipelines typically consist of metal pipe parts (e.g., steel, cast iron, and aluminum), although some are made of concrete, clay products, and sometimes plastics. The pieces are welded together, and laid underground in most cases.
For a variety of factors, pipelines have become the chosen mode of transport for liquid and gas over competing modes such as truck and rail: they are less environmentally adverse, less vulnerable to robbery, and more affordable, safe, easy, and reliable than other modes. In certain cases, pipelines have been chosen to transport solids ranging from coal and other minerals over long distances or to transport grain, rocks, cement, concrete, solid waste, pulp, machine parts, books, and hundreds of other goods over short distances, even though transporting solids by pipeline is more complex and more expensive than transporting liquid and gas by pipeline. The list of solid loads transported by pipelines has been gradually rising.
In the 18th century, when cast-iron pipes were used commercially, a major enhancement in pipeline technology took place. Another important milestone was the invention of steel pipes in the 19th century, which significantly improved the strength of pipes of all sizes. The production of high-strength steel pipes has allowed natural gas and oil to be transported over long distances. Both steel pipes originally had to be threaded together. For large pipes, this was difficult to do, and under high pressure they were apt to leak. In the 1920s, the application of welding to connect pipes permitted the construction of leak proof, high-pressure, large-diameter pipelines. Most high-pressure piping today consists of welded-joint steel pipe.
- Advantages :
- The reduction in transportation costs is very positive.
- Supply is very stable through pipelines. It is free from road and rail traffic obstacles.
- In the case of underground pipelines, it is also possible to use the land on which the pipeline is placed for agricultural
- In remote areas where roadways are not very good, it ensures supply, and also provides safe and stable supply for needs.
- Unlike highways, no separate land acquisition is carried out for pipelines, sometimes along the road sideways. That, if it passes through dense populated areas, is not very comfortable. There is also often a chance of destroying the pipeline due to road maintenance and other excavation activities.
- Illegal pilferage and waste due to leakage is a pipeline issue.
- Patrolling and managing pipelines, like other large linear structures, is a huge challenge.
- Any leak can cause an accident in the case of chemical and petroleum pipelines.